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Publikasi 13: The Benefits of Biochar on Rice Growth and Yield in Tropical Riparian Wetland, South Sumatra, Indonesia


Abstract
Biochar improves soil quality. However, most biochar research has focused on aerobic soil conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the agronomic benefits of applying biochar on unfertilized rice crop, cultivated under transitional anaerobic soil conditions during early vegetative growth phase, and gradually drying out to fully aerobic at harvest time. This transitional condition is typical during the rice growing season of the tropical riparian wetlands in Indonesia. Biochar was applied in the form of fine powder at rates of 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 Mg.ha-1; no inorganic fertilizer was applied. The research was conducted on a farmer’s paddy field at Pemulutan Ulu Village, South Sumatra, Indonesia from July to November 2016. Results indicated that applying biochar at rates up to 1.2 Mg.ha-1 increased rice yield, but restrained shoot elongation rate and plant height. During the vegetative growth phase, applying biochar significantly increased the number of tillers, leaves, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. Biochar significantly affected the following yield components: number of tillers, percentage of productive tiller, number of grains per panicle, panicle density, percentage of filled grain, and weight of 1,000 grains.

Full article can be downloaded here: 2018 CMUJ Natural Sciences 17(2)_111-126 Benefits on rice

Publikasi 12: Steady shallow water table did not decrease leaf expansion rate, specific leaf weight, and specific leaf water content in tomato plants


Abstract
It was presumed that shallow water table restricted leaf growth and some water-related parameters; therefore, they can be used as indicators of plant stress due to the water table condition. Objective of this research was to evaluate morphological stress indicators in tomato plants exposed to shallow water table. The research was conducted in two stages: (1) developing reliable LA estimation model from June to September 2016; as pre-requisite for (2) calculating and evaluating the morphological indicators for stress due to shallow water table treatments, conducted from February to May 2017. Treated plants were placed inside experimental pools. Each treatment was done by partially submerging growing substrate to the targeted water tables at 5 cm and 10 cm below surface of the substrate. Untreated control plants were kept outside the pools. Zero-intercept linear model was the selected model for leaf area estimation after evaluating 15 combinations of five regression models and three predictors. Results of this study indicated that steady water table at 5-cm and 10-cm depth did not restrain relative leaf expansion rate (RLER) and there was no significant difference in specific leaf fresh weight (SLFW) and specific leaf water content (SLWC) between treated and untreated plants, measured prior to, during, and after recovery from shallow water table treatments. In conclusion, if position of water table was steady, the shallow water table at 5-cm depth or deeper did not affect tomato growth.

Full article can be downloaded here: 2017 AJCS Shallow water table in tomato plants

Publikasi 11: Relative leaf expansion rate and other leaf-related indicators for detection of drought stress in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)


Abstract
Leaf is a sensitive plant organ in responding to abiotic stresses, especially drought stress. Objective of this research was to evaluate changes of relative leaf expansion rate (RLER) and other leaf-related indicators as affected by gradual drought stress. The stress was induced by withholding water supply to chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.) for up to 12 days. Afterward, the crops were allowed to recover. The research was conducted in two stages. The first stage was for finding a reliable leaf area (LA) estimation model. The second stage was for evaluating relevance of RLER, specific leaf fresh weight (SLFW), specific leaf water content (SLWC), and total leaf area (TLA) as indicators for drought stress in chili pepper. Combinations of five regression models (linear, zero-intercept linear, quadratic, zero-intercept quadratic, and power) and three predictors, i.e. leaf length (L), leaf width (W), and LW were evaluated as candidates of LA estimation model. Selection of the models were based on coefficient of determination (R2) and geometrical principles. The selected model was used for calculating RLER, SLFW, SLWC and TLA. Results of this study indicated that dynamic changes of RLER were mainly driven by daily day-night cycle rather than long-term gradual drought stress. SLFW and SLWC did not significantly decrease during drought stress period. However, drought stress significantly inhibited TLA in chili pepper. Chili pepper was able to recover from short-term (4 days) exposure to drought stress; yet, this crop was unable to recover after 8 days exposure to drought stress or longer.

Full article can be downloaded 2017 AJCS Drought stress in chili pepper

Publikasi 10: Simplifying procedure for a non-destructive, inexpensive, yet accurate trifoliate leaf area estimation in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)


Non-destructive measurement of leaf area (LA) is preferred in growth analysis and plant physiological studies. Many regression-based models have been developed for estimating LA using leaf length (L), leaf width (W), or imaginary rectangle of L x W (LW) as predictor or independent variable. Objective of this study was to develop and validate appropriate regression models for estimating snap bean trifoliate LA using easily measured L, W, or calculated LW. Snap bean used in this research was PV072 cultivar. Trifoliate-leaf samples were purposively collected from different individual plants, to represent wide range of leaf sizes, from the smallest leaf with fully open blade to the largest available leaf. Snap bean trifoliate leaf consists of three leaflets. The sampled leaves were alternately divided into two subgroups, based on length of terminal leaflet, for developing and validating LA estimation models. Linear, quadratic, and power regressions were evaluated for their appropriateness to be used for estimating LA. Intercept (a) was forced to zero to make the models more geometrically realistic. Results of this research indicated that: (1) zero-intercept quadratic and power regression models performed well for length of leaflet (Lt) or width of leaflet (Wt) was used as predictor, whereas zero-intercept linear model was appropriate and geometrically-sound if imaginary rectangular Lt x Wt (LtWt) was used for estimating surface area of both terminal and side leaflets (LtA); (2) for a practical, fast, and accurate estimation of LA, LtWt of terminal leaflet was the recommended option among other single or combination of predictors; and (3) recommended empirical model for LA estimation of snap bean trifoliate leaf is LA = 1.5198 LtWt.

Artikel secara utuh bisa diunduh Artikel Lengkap

Slide 64: Prasyarat Memberhasilkan Pengabdian


Kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat yang dilakukan oleh sivitas akademika belum memberikan dampak yang signifikan terhadap kesejahteraan masyarakat. Mungkin ini juga disebabkan karena secara institusional kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat merupakan unsur tridharma perguruan tinggi yang dianggap kurang penting. Tercermin dari kredit poin yang ‘asal-ada’ untuk promosi jabatan fungsional akademik dan alokasi anggaran yang minimal untuk kegiatan ini. Walaupun secara tegas dan jelas bahwa konstitusi telah mengamanahkan bahwa pembangunan iptek (termasuk yang dilakukan oleh perguruan tinggi) adalah untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan umat dan pemajuan peradaban bangsa.

Secara substansial juga ada persoalan, kebanyakan kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat yang dilakukan oleh sivitas akademika lebih merupakan upaya untuk berbagi ilmu dan pengenalan teknologi yang diketahui oleh komunitas akademik tersebut, bukan apa yang diharapkan oleh masyarakat, serta sangat jarang dalam pemilihan iptek yang akan dibagi dan diperkenalkan tersebut mempertimbangkan aspek kapasitas adopsi masyarakat, keuntungannya bagi masyarakat, dan aspek preferensi dan kebiasaan masyarakat. Akibatnya, banyak kegiatan pengabdian kepada masyarakat yang ‘berlalu-tanpa-kesan’

Slide bahan diskusi ini bisa diunduh disini:20170331 Prasyarat Memberhasilkan Pengabdian

Pertanian Berbasis Sumberdaya & Kearifan Lokal 07 – Pasar Terapung


Kearifan lokal tidak hanya terkait dengan suatu produk fisik, seperti rakit pembibitan padi. Di Kalimantan Selatan, ada pasar terapung, dimana masyarakat kawasan rawa lebak berkumpul di Sungai Martapura, di Desa Lok Baintan untuk menjual hasil-hasil pertaniannya dan membeli produk lainnya untuk memenuhi kebutuhan sehari-hari atau sarana produksi pertanian. Masyarakat datang dari berbagai penjuru dalam kawasan lebak tersebut, dimana prasarana transportasi darat pada mulanya belum tersedia. Walaupun sekarang sudah mulai terbangun jalan akses dalam kawasan ini, namun sampai saat ini kegiatan pasar terapung ini masih tetap hidup dalam masyarakat kawasan rawa lebak ini. Malah kegiatan perdagangan tardisional yang unik ini sekarang menjadi salah satu atraksi wisata andalan Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan.

Bahan untuk kuliah ke tujuh ini bisa diunduh disini: pertanian-berbasis-sumberdaya-kearifan-lokal-07

Pertanian Berbasis Sumberdaya & Kearifan Lokal 06 – Budidaya Sayuran Terapung


Kearifan lokal punya paling tidak tiga keunggulan yang sudah teruji, yakni: (1) merupakan solusi bagi realitas persoalan yang dihadapi masyarakat; (2) masyarakat mampu untuk mengaplikasikannya; dan (3) akrab lingkungan karena sudah terbukti dapat diimplementasikan secara berkelanjutan turun-temurun. Berdasarkan keunggulan-keunggulan tersebut, kearifan lokal bisa menjadi inspirasi atau referensi dalam mengembangkan teknologi yang relevan dengan realitas kebutuhan atau persoalan masyarakat. Teknologi dapat dirancang agar kinerja kearifan dapat ditingkatkan, misalnya menjadi lebih produktif, lebih efisien, atau digunakan untuk kepentingan yang lebih beragam.

Pembibitan padi secara terapung menggunakan rakit rumput rawa (berondong) telah menjadi inspirasi bagi saya dibantu oleh beberapa mahasiswa untuk mengembangkan sistem budidaya terapung untuk tanaman sayuran. Karena umur tanaman sayuran lebih lama dibandingkan bibit padi, maka diperlukan bahan yang lebih tahan lama dibandingkan biomaterial rumput berondong yang hanya bertahan sekitar 1 bulan. Pilihan jatuh pada pemanfaatan daur ulang botol plastik kemasan air minum yang dikumpulkan dari sampah padat perkotaan, atau bisa beli dari pemulung dengan harga yang super murah. Botol bekas ini diikat dan ‘dibalut’ dengan anyaman kawat nyamuk sehingga sulit untuk tercerai-berai. Agar bentuk rakit menjadi lebih kokoh digunakan rangka dari pipa PVC. Rakit yang dibuat dengan menggunakan 69 botol plasti bekas berukuran 1,5 liter mampu menahan beban sekitar 120 kg. Dengan demikian rakit bisa menahan beban 24 polibeg yang telah diisi media tanam seberat 5 kg, 15 polibeg dengan berat media 8 kg, atau 12 polibeg dengan berat media 10 kg.

Uji coba kinerja rakit sudah dilakukan untuk budidaya cabai terapung dan telah memberikan hasil yang memuaskan. Berbagai aspek teknis yang lebih rinci akan diberikan pada kuliah yang ke enam ini. Bahan materi kuliah bisa diunduh disini: pertanian-berbasis-sumberdaya-kearifan-lokal-06

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