Landscape ecology is the science of studying and improving the relationships between spatial pattern and ecological processes on a multitude of scales and organizational levels. In short, landscape ecology is an ecology at landscape level.
Landscape is spatially heterogeneous areas characterized by a mosaic of patches that differ in size, shape, contents, and history. Patch is elements that make up a landscape. Arrangement and composition of the patches that compose a landscape is called as landscape pattern; while spatial relationships among landscape elements (patches) is landscape Structure. Furthermore, landscape function describes how the elements act and interact. Landscape Change is alteration of the structure and function of the landscape over time. Lastly, landscape Management is the management of structure and function to achieve a desired condition.
Researches in landscape ecology mostly focused on spatial heterogeneity, broader spatial extents than those traditionally studied in ecology, and role of humans in creating and affecting landscape patterns and processes.
Full slides on this issues can be downloaded here: Landscape Ecology 01