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Publikasi 13: The Benefits of Biochar on Rice Growth and Yield in Tropical Riparian Wetland, South Sumatra, Indonesia


Abstract
Biochar improves soil quality. However, most biochar research has focused on aerobic soil conditions. The objective of this research was to evaluate the agronomic benefits of applying biochar on unfertilized rice crop, cultivated under transitional anaerobic soil conditions during early vegetative growth phase, and gradually drying out to fully aerobic at harvest time. This transitional condition is typical during the rice growing season of the tropical riparian wetlands in Indonesia. Biochar was applied in the form of fine powder at rates of 0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 Mg.ha-1; no inorganic fertilizer was applied. The research was conducted on a farmer’s paddy field at Pemulutan Ulu Village, South Sumatra, Indonesia from July to November 2016. Results indicated that applying biochar at rates up to 1.2 Mg.ha-1 increased rice yield, but restrained shoot elongation rate and plant height. During the vegetative growth phase, applying biochar significantly increased the number of tillers, leaves, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. Biochar significantly affected the following yield components: number of tillers, percentage of productive tiller, number of grains per panicle, panicle density, percentage of filled grain, and weight of 1,000 grains.

Full article can be downloaded here: 2018 CMUJ Natural Sciences 17(2)_111-126 Benefits on rice

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Publikasi 12: Steady shallow water table did not decrease leaf expansion rate, specific leaf weight, and specific leaf water content in tomato plants


Abstract
It was presumed that shallow water table restricted leaf growth and some water-related parameters; therefore, they can be used as indicators of plant stress due to the water table condition. Objective of this research was to evaluate morphological stress indicators in tomato plants exposed to shallow water table. The research was conducted in two stages: (1) developing reliable LA estimation model from June to September 2016; as pre-requisite for (2) calculating and evaluating the morphological indicators for stress due to shallow water table treatments, conducted from February to May 2017. Treated plants were placed inside experimental pools. Each treatment was done by partially submerging growing substrate to the targeted water tables at 5 cm and 10 cm below surface of the substrate. Untreated control plants were kept outside the pools. Zero-intercept linear model was the selected model for leaf area estimation after evaluating 15 combinations of five regression models and three predictors. Results of this study indicated that steady water table at 5-cm and 10-cm depth did not restrain relative leaf expansion rate (RLER) and there was no significant difference in specific leaf fresh weight (SLFW) and specific leaf water content (SLWC) between treated and untreated plants, measured prior to, during, and after recovery from shallow water table treatments. In conclusion, if position of water table was steady, the shallow water table at 5-cm depth or deeper did not affect tomato growth.

Full article can be downloaded here: 2017 AJCS Shallow water table in tomato plants

Publikasi 11: Relative leaf expansion rate and other leaf-related indicators for detection of drought stress in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)


Abstract
Leaf is a sensitive plant organ in responding to abiotic stresses, especially drought stress. Objective of this research was to evaluate changes of relative leaf expansion rate (RLER) and other leaf-related indicators as affected by gradual drought stress. The stress was induced by withholding water supply to chili pepper (Capsicum annum L.) for up to 12 days. Afterward, the crops were allowed to recover. The research was conducted in two stages. The first stage was for finding a reliable leaf area (LA) estimation model. The second stage was for evaluating relevance of RLER, specific leaf fresh weight (SLFW), specific leaf water content (SLWC), and total leaf area (TLA) as indicators for drought stress in chili pepper. Combinations of five regression models (linear, zero-intercept linear, quadratic, zero-intercept quadratic, and power) and three predictors, i.e. leaf length (L), leaf width (W), and LW were evaluated as candidates of LA estimation model. Selection of the models were based on coefficient of determination (R2) and geometrical principles. The selected model was used for calculating RLER, SLFW, SLWC and TLA. Results of this study indicated that dynamic changes of RLER were mainly driven by daily day-night cycle rather than long-term gradual drought stress. SLFW and SLWC did not significantly decrease during drought stress period. However, drought stress significantly inhibited TLA in chili pepper. Chili pepper was able to recover from short-term (4 days) exposure to drought stress; yet, this crop was unable to recover after 8 days exposure to drought stress or longer.

Full article can be downloaded 2017 AJCS Drought stress in chili pepper

Publikasi 10: Simplifying procedure for a non-destructive, inexpensive, yet accurate trifoliate leaf area estimation in snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)


Non-destructive measurement of leaf area (LA) is preferred in growth analysis and plant physiological studies. Many regression-based models have been developed for estimating LA using leaf length (L), leaf width (W), or imaginary rectangle of L x W (LW) as predictor or independent variable. Objective of this study was to develop and validate appropriate regression models for estimating snap bean trifoliate LA using easily measured L, W, or calculated LW. Snap bean used in this research was PV072 cultivar. Trifoliate-leaf samples were purposively collected from different individual plants, to represent wide range of leaf sizes, from the smallest leaf with fully open blade to the largest available leaf. Snap bean trifoliate leaf consists of three leaflets. The sampled leaves were alternately divided into two subgroups, based on length of terminal leaflet, for developing and validating LA estimation models. Linear, quadratic, and power regressions were evaluated for their appropriateness to be used for estimating LA. Intercept (a) was forced to zero to make the models more geometrically realistic. Results of this research indicated that: (1) zero-intercept quadratic and power regression models performed well for length of leaflet (Lt) or width of leaflet (Wt) was used as predictor, whereas zero-intercept linear model was appropriate and geometrically-sound if imaginary rectangular Lt x Wt (LtWt) was used for estimating surface area of both terminal and side leaflets (LtA); (2) for a practical, fast, and accurate estimation of LA, LtWt of terminal leaflet was the recommended option among other single or combination of predictors; and (3) recommended empirical model for LA estimation of snap bean trifoliate leaf is LA = 1.5198 LtWt.

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Publikasi 09: Identifikasi Teknologi yang Relevan untuk Mendukung Diversifikasi Usaha Pe(Tani) dan Diversifikasi Konsumsi Pangan di Indonesia


The term of food diversification generally covers two main issues: diversification of farming activities and food consumption. In Indonesia, diversification of food consumption has been the major issue, associated with effort to reduce dependency on rice as main staple food. Continuous efforts have been performed since 1960’s to develop alternative foods, comparable to rice, based on local food resources. However, these efforts have not yielded satisfactory results. Unexpectedly, rice consumption has continuously increased and by 2010 almost all of the population prefers to consume rice than any other staple food. As economy grows, wheat becomes preferred alternative. Unfortunately, almost 100 percent of wheat is imported. Unsuccessful food diversification program in Indonesia has been related to failure in recognizing fundamental problem. Shifting in food consumption pattern is not driven by technical factors (availability, quality, and price); instead, it is driven by social status labeled to each food. Social status of local non-rice foods are perceived as lower compared to rice. In contrast, wheat is considered to have higher social status than rice. General trend of food consumption shifting is from low to high social status as consumer’s income increases. Instead of diversification of food consumption, Indonesia should encourage diversification of farming activities as a viable way to improve farmers’ prosperity. Actually, constitutional mandate is to improve prosperity of farmers, and not specifically to achieve self-sufficient status in rice. Agricultural technology development should be directed toward green technology with its triple objectives: increasing income, socially inclusive, and ecologically-sound. In addition, packaging technology should be developed for local food non-rice-based products, coupled with aesthetic design for the package, such that it will create classy image and social status of the local food products. In case there is gap between food industry and farmers as supplier of raw materials, solution efforts should lean more toward development of food processing technologies that will match with specification of raw materials produced by farmers.

Diversifikasi pangan mencakup dua isu yang berbeda, yakni divesifikasi usaha tani dan diversifikasi konsumsi pangan. Di Indonesia, diversifikasi pangan lebih dimaknai sebagai upaya mengurangi ketergantungan pada beras sebagai pangan pokok. Hal ini tercermin dari kebijakan, strategi, dan upaya yang dominan dilakukan untuk mengurangi konsumsi beras melalui penyediaan alternatif pangan yang berbasis pada sumberdaya lokal. Upaya mendorong diversifikasi konsumsi pangan telah dilakukan sejak tahun 1960-an, tetapi sampai sekarang tidak menunjukkan hasil yang memuaskan, bahkan sebaliknya pada tahun 2010 hampir seluruh rakyat Indonesia memilih beras sebagai pangan pokok yang utama. Pilihan selain beras, justeru adalah gandum yang hampir seluruhnya diimpor. Program diversifikasi konsumsi pangan yang tidak berhasil di Indonesia diyakini sebagai akibat penafsiran yang keliru tentang akar persoalan yang dihadapi. Pergeseran pola konsumsi pangan sesungguhnya bukan didorong oleh faktor teknis (ketersediaan, mutu, atau harga), tetapi lebih disebabkan oleh status sosial pangan. Status sosial pangan lokal non-beras dipersepsikan lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan beras; sebaliknya gandum dipersepsikan status sosialnya lebih tinggi. Pergeseran pola konsumsi adalah dari status sosial pangan yang lebih rendah ke yang lebih tinggi, seiring dengan peningkatan pendapatan/kesejahteraan konsumennya. Selain diversifikasi konsumsi pangan, selayaknya Indonesia lebih mendorong diversifikasi usaha tani (atau usaha lain yang dapat dilakukan petani) dalam rangka untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraannya. Perlu diingat bahwa amanah konstitusi adalah untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan petani, bukan mencapai status swasembasa beras. Teknologi yang perlu didorong adalah teknologi pertanian yang selaras dengan karakteristik teknologi hijau (green technology) untuk meningkatkan kesejahteraan petani, membuka peluang bagi seluruh aktor, dan menjamin pelestarian lingkungan. Selain itu, perlu juga dikembangkan teknologi kemasan produk pangan lokal yang tidak hanya secara fungsional efektif tetapi juga menarik bagi konsumen karena desainnya yang artistik, dengan tujuan utama meningkatkan status sosial pangan lokal non-beras. Pendekatan yang dipilih jika ada kesenjangan antara industri dengan petani adalah mengembangkan teknologi pengolahan pangan yang berbasis pada jenis dan spesifikasi bahan baku yang dihasilkan petani.

Untuk artikel lengkapnya bisa dibaca atau unduh disini: 2014 Lakitan – Teknovasi Indonesia Vol 3 No 1 Page 1-25

Publikasi 08: Kapasitas Absorpsi Masyarakat Lokal dan Upaya Difusi Teknologi Perikanan di Kepulauan Raja Ampat, Papua Barat


Kepulauan Raja Ampat, Indonesia merupakan kawasan laut yang memiliki keragaman biologi dan potensi perikanan yang tinggi, sehingga menjadi sasaran untuk kegiatan konservasi ekosistem laut dan sekaligus juga menjadi sumberdaya perikanan dan kelautan yang penting bagi Indonesia, khususnya masyarakat Papua Barat. Harmonisasi kepentingan ekologi dan ekonomi, dibarengi dengan upaya meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat lokal setempat, merupakan kunci keberhasilan dan keberlanjutan pembangunan wilayah ini.

Kajian ini dirancang untuk memahami tentang teknologi yang tepat untuk diintroduksikan dan ekosistem inovasi yang perlu diwujudkan agar pembangunan berkelanjutan dan menyejahterakan masyarakat lokal dapat diformulasikan dengan baik, sebagai dasar untuk regulasi dan/atau kebijakan publik yang akan direkomendasikan.

Hasil kajian ini mengindikasikan bahwa kapasitas absorpsi masyarakat lokal perlu ditingkatkan sebagai prakondisi yang perlu diwujudkan sebelum teknologi diintroduksikan. Paralel dengan upaya ini, teknologi tersedia juga perlu diadaptasi agar lebih terjangkau secara teknis dan finansial oleh masyarakat lokal, sehingga kesepadanan baru antara teknologi yang diintroduksi dan kapasitas absorpsi lebih cepat tercapai dan absorpsi teknologi dapat terjadi lebih awal. Adaptasi teknologi perlu menggunakan teknologi tradisional yang saat ini digunakan sebagai referensi. Walaupun pada tahap inisiasinya dibutuhkan intervensi pemerintah, namun selanjutnya diharapkan proses paralel antara peningkatan kapasitas masyarakat dan adaptasi teknologi dapat berlangsung secara bertahap dan berkelanjutan sebagai dampak positif sifat mutualistik dari kedua upaya ini. Regulasi dan kebijakan publik dibutuhkan untuk mengawal agar intervensi pemerintah tersebut dapat diformulasikan secara tepat dan diimplementasikan secara konsisten.

partisipasi 4 pihak

Kesepadanan Teknologi - Kapasitas Absorpsi

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Publikasi 07: Connecting All The Dots: Identifying the “Actor Level” Challenges in Establishing Effective Innovation System in Indonesia


Establishing an effective innovation system is a gigantic effort for Indonesia and surely will
face many and diverse challenges. The challenges can be found at all three levels (core,
ecosystem, and anatomy) within the innovation system. At the core level, communication
and interaction between domestic technology developers and users have to be intensified.
At the ecosystem level, it is more complicated for creating a favorable atmosphere for
nurturing an effective and productive innovation system which will significantly
contribute to economic growth and social welfare improvement. Hard challenges at the
ecosystem level are to harmonize all regulations and public policies such that they are
more in favor of innovation system development; and to synchronize prioritized programs
and activities of all related public and private institutions. Deeper insight into each actor of
innovation system and the challenges faced is required for advancing innovation. This
analysis uses case methodology to identify these challenges. Scientific collaboration among
technology developers is low; therefore, it could cause inefficient use of national R&D
budget. In-house R&D activities and technology absorptive capacity of domestic industries
are also low. Finally, the role of an intermediation agency is not yet significant.

Full paper can be viewed and downloaded here

Innovation system

Innovation ecosystem

Tridharma - SINas1

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